Monday, May 25, 2020

Tragedy And The Modern Man By Arthur Miller Essay

In the reading â€Å"Tragedy and the Modern Man† written by author Arthur Miller, it states, â€Å"I believe that the common man is as apt a subject for tragedy in its highest sense as kings were.† Arthur Miller describes what the true meaning of a tragic hero is throughout his reading. This quote that Miller includes shows us that any human being can suffer a tragedy as because we are a human being. To suffer through a tragedy, no matter how big or small, is what makes you truly a hero and successful. No matter what your social class may be, whether you are a common man or a king, when exposed to any circumstances, one can suffer a tragedy. Miller believes that facing a tragedy is pro rather than a con. Although, to suffer through the pain may be difficult for some, the experience and knowledge of how to overcome the situation in the future is more powerful than avoiding the pain. â€Å"†¦the tale always reveals what has been called his tragic flaw, a failing that is not peculiar to grand or elevated characters. Nor is it necessarily a weakness.† Miller mentions this in his reading as he explains that to have a flaw is not always something bad, but something good and something you should accept, rather than believing you are someone you truly are not. A great example of this comes from the novel â€Å"Things Fall Apart† by Chinua Achebe. Throughout this novel, the main character, Okonkwo, is known to be the complete opposite of his father just because he was not successful like the rest of theShow MoreRelatedWilly Loman, the Modern Hero in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman1739 Words   |  7 Pages In Arthur Miller’s essay â€Å"Tragedy and the Common Man†, a picture is painted of a â€Å"flaw-full† man, known as the modern hero of tragedies. Miller describes what characteristics the modern tragic hero possesses and how he differs from the heroes depicted by classic Greek playwrights such as Sophocles and Aristotle. In order to understand how drastically the modern hero has evolved, one must first understand the basic characteristics that the heroes created by Sophocles and Aristotle encompass. TheRead MoreConventions of Tragedy in A View From The Bridge By Arthur Miller1100 Words   |  5 PagesConventions of Tragedy in A View From The Bridge By Arthur Miller Arthur Miller manipulates his characters and uses literary devices to effectively convey to the audience the trajectory of Eddie Carbone and his flaws of misconduct in the play, A View From The Bridge. He uses all the conventions of a modern tragedy adequately to help arouse sympathy, suspense and fear from the audience at significant intervals of the playRead MoreA Survey of Tragedy984 Words   |  4 PagesA Survey of Tragedy A modern tragedy of today and a tragedy of ancient Greece are two very different concepts, but ironically, both are linked by many similarities. In â€Å"Poetics†, Aristotle defines and outlines tragedy for theatre in a way that displays his genius, but raises questions and creates controversy. Aristotle’s famous definition of tragedy states: â€Å"A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious, and also as having magnitude, complete in itself in language with pleasurable accessoriesRead MoreQuest For Literary Form : The Greeks Believed That The Tragedy1742 Words   |  7 PagesGreeks believed that the tragedy was the greatest form of drama, and Aristotle’s concept of tragedy followed this belief. In the modern times, there has been a change in this view with various authors abandoning the classical form to follow more liberal forms of literacy. (Kennedy Gioia, Pp. 1203) Aristotle s Concept of Tragedy The analysis of Aristotle on tragedy formed the guideline for later poets in the Western civilization. Aristotle defined tragedy as â€Å"the simulation ofRead MoreExamples Of Everyday Tragedy732 Words   |  3 PagesEveryday Tragedy When a person thinks of tragedy the thing that flows to mind is death and destruction. Even though this way of thinking is valid, there are several ways to analyze the concept of tragedy. Tragedy is when one suffers an unexpected punishment that has merged together through ones actions. Arthur Miller believes that tragedy can happen to any type of person if youre rich or if youre poor, no matter what, it can happen to all of us. Arthur shows this to us in the book Death of aRead More Common Man as Tragic Hero in Death of a Salesman Essay1518 Words   |  7 PagesCommon Man as Tragic Hero in Death of a Salesman What is tragedy? While the literal definition may have changed over the centuries, one man believed he knew the true meaning of a tragic performance. Aristotle belonged to the culture that first invented tragic drama – the ancient Greeks. Through this, he gave himself credibility enough to illustrate the universally necessary elements of tragic drama. In The Poetics, Aristotle gives a clear definition of a tragedy, writing that it is â€Å"an imitationRead More Willy Loman as Tragic Hero of Death of a Salesman Essay1519 Words   |  7 PagesSalesman, exhibits all the characteristics of a modern tragic hero. This essay will support this thesis by drawing on examples from Medea by Euripedes, Poetics by Aristotle, Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, and Shakespeares Julius Caesar, while comments by Moss, Gordon, and Nourse reinforce the thesis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Death of Salesman, by Arthur Miller, fits the characteristics of classic tragedy. ?.... this is, first of all, a play about a mans death. And tragedy has from the beginning dealt with this awesomeRead MoreWilly Loman as a Tragic Hero in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman1218 Words   |  5 PagesTragic Hero in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman Should Willy Loman of Arthur Millers classic, Death of a Salesman be regarded as a tragic hero, or merely a working-class, socially inadequate failure? Described by Miller as a self-destructive, insecure anti-hero, it seems almost impossible for Loman to be what is known as a tragic hero in the classical sense, but with the inclusion of other factors he maybe a tragic hero, at least in the modern context, or partiallyRead More Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman is A Modern Tragedy Essay1044 Words   |  5 PagesArthur Millers Death of a Salesman is A Modern Tragedy  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚      In the fourth century B.C., Aristotle set forth his description of dramatic tragedy, and for centuries after, tragedy continued to be defined by his basic observations. It was not until the modern age that playwrights began to deviate somewhat from the basic tenets of Aristotelian tragedy and, in doing so, began to create plays more recognizable to the common people and, thereby, less traditional. Even so, upon examinationRead MoreAnalysis Of Arthur Millers Death Of Salesman 1548 Words   |  7 Pages Research paper on death of salesman Arthur Miller created stories that express the deepest meanings of struggle. Miller is the most prominent twentieth-century American playwrights. He based his works on his own life, and his observations of the American scene. Arthur Asher Miller was born 17 October 1915 in Manhattan, New York city. He was the son of Jewish immigrants from Poland. His parents had a prosperous clothing company. Unfortunately when the stock market crashed, because his family

Friday, May 15, 2020

Forensic Nursing Codes Of Ethics - 1382 Words

The profession of nursing has many vast specialties. Although every specialty, including forensic nursing, has its unique population and scope of practice, every field of nursing can and should utilize the Codes of Ethics from the American Nurses Association. The 2015 Code â€Å"addresses individual as well as collective nursing intentions and actions; it requires each nurse to demonstrate ethical competence in professional life† (ANA, 2015, p. 7). This code can be broken down into nine provisions which highlight the main focuses every nurse should strive to abide by in practice. Because forensic nursing is a field that intersects the legal system and healthcare (ANA IAFN, 2015, p. 3), it has its own variation of codes of ethics that differ†¦show more content†¦8) of all patients and communities. Each segment of the Vision of Ethical Practice can be broken down and compared to different provisions of the ANA code of ethics. Fidelity to Patients and Clients Forensic nurses assist patients â€Å"faithfully and incorruptibly† (IAFN, 2008, p.1). The first provision of the ANA Code of Ethics states, â€Å"the nurse practices with compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth, and unique attributes of every person† (ANA, 2015, p. 8). Much like the ANA code, the forensic nursing code of ethics established by the IAFN states: The belief that human worth is the philosophical foundation on which forensic nursing is based, the practice of forensic nursing is consistent with the Vision of Ethical Practice (IAFN, 2008), the International Council of Nurses (ICN) Code of Ethics for Nurses (ICN, 2012), and the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretative Statements (ANA, 2015). (ANA IAFN, 2015, p. 18). Especially as a forensic nurse, dealing with a vulnerable and marginalized population that have been victims of some type of violence or trauma, it is crucial to â€Å"deliver services in a non-judgmental and non-discriminatory manner that is sensitive to the diversity of the patient and the community† (ANA IAFN, 2015, p. 18). These nurses work with the homeless, domestic violence victims, transgendered individuals, individuals suffering from mental illness, offenders who are incarcerated, and alcohol and drug abusers.Show MoreRelatedRoles And Responsibilities Of The Nursing Profession891 Words   |  4 PagesNursing Today Did you know that nursing did not start out like how it is today? Yes, that’s correct! There has been numerous changes in the nursing field over the last hundred years. Let’s take a look at the factors that influenced the development of the nursing profession, the roles and responsibilities of nurses, and different career opportunities. These changes are what played a vital role in my desire to become a nurse. Development of the nursing profession War was a major influence on theRead MorePersonal Narrative : My Third Year Essay1102 Words   |  5 Pagessince there is no name for them. Nursing is all I ever wanted to do. I can’t quite remember how I caught the bug but I do remember making the decision to pursue this career and never looking back. I have pushed through so many obstacles while still in school and since starting as a professional working nurse, it’s a wonder how I managed to stay committed to nursing these past three years. I will admit there was a dark time about a year ago where I just felt that nursing was letting me down and I wasRead MoreCritical Incident Analysis Essay3770 Words   |  16 PagesAssignment word count: 3000 Actual word count: 2967 Contents 1. Assignment 2. References 03 – 11 12 – 13 ID No: 20328 Page 2 Introduction This paper will critically analyse an incident that occurred during my placement on a forensic low secure unit. The Low secure unit provides multidisciplinary treatment and care for male patients aged between eighteen and sixty-four with serious mental disorders who require the provision of appropriate security underpinned by the principlesRead MoreEssay about Reflection of a Forensic Nursing Placement2665 Words   |  11 PagesUsing no more than 2000 words reflect on your experience of working in this placement area. You should consider what you have learned about the specific practice area, for example whether it is forensic, community nursing speciality, what you have learned about yourself and the complexity of the Learning Disability nurse’s role within it. You are expected to apply a reflective framework of your choice and support your reflection with appropriate references. This piece of reflection will focusRead MoreEthical Dilemmas for Nurses on End of Life Issues5633 Words   |  23 PagesEND-OF-LIFE ISSUES BASED ON CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS HELD IN ELDORET, KENYA Author: Kamau S. Macharia: BScN (Moi), MSc (studying) Nursing Leadership Health Care Systems Management (University of Colorado, Denver), Higher Dip. Critical Care Nursing (Nbi). Graduate Assistant, School of Nursing Biomedical Sciences, Kabianga University College (A Constituent College of Moi University), . P 0 Box 2030 20200 Kericho, Kenya , Tel +254 722224577, Email: symomash@gmailRead MoreCase : Odom V. State Department Of Health And Hospital1474 Words   |  6 PagesOdom in 1994 against the State of Louisiana through the Department of Health and Hospitals. They lost their fourteen year old adopted son named Joseph Paul Odom (Jojo), who died of hypoxia at the Pinecrest Development Center in Louisiana, due to nursing negligence, on August 19, 1994. Description of the Case Joseph was born twelve weeks prematurely in Pineville, Louisiana on June 14, 1979 with a congenital birth defect of hyaline membrane syndrome. He had first episode of seizure when he was sixRead MoreCodes of Ethics in Nursing3690 Words   |  15 PagesCODE OF ETHICS IN NURSING * The fundamental responsibility of the nurse is fourfold: to promote health, to prevent illness, to restore health and to alleviate suffering. * The need for nursing is universal. Inherent in nursing is respect for life, dignity and the rights of man. It is unrestricted by consideration of nationality, race, creed, color, age sex, politics, or social status. * Nurses render health services to the individual, the family and the community and coordinate theirRead MoreIncarceration of The Mentally Ill Essay1771 Words   |  8 Pagesthe federal governments housing regulations resulted in an increase of homelessness within the mentally ill population. Changes in the Medicare and Medicaid systems made it cheaper to release psychiatric patients to less strict facilities such as nursing homes (Grob, 1994, Mechanic Rochefort, 1992, as cited in Litschge Vaughn, 2009). Because of large releases from institutions, substantial numbers of those living with mental illness stopped receiving treatment and the rates of incarceration beganRead MoreLegal and Professional Issues in Nursing4141 Words   |  17 Pagesï » ¿Legal and Professional Issues in Nursing Introduction Nursing involves forming relationships with patients on many different levels, which will depend on unique sets of circumstances and individual personalities. Illnesses which are considered life-threatening in particular can really require treatment that is complex and physical nevertheless, more tellingly, can awaken compound emotional, mental and spiritual issues for both patient, family and nurse. Experiencing such situations helps nursesRead MoreThe Death With Dignity Act1763 Words   |  8 Pagesthey have been dealt. When something of this magnitude occurs in ones life, doctor assisted suicide should never be an option, or even a thought on their mind. Human euthanasia is ethically, and morally wrong. It violates the principles of medical ethics that doctors take, it costs less to keep a person alive, rather than die, and if this medication falls into the wrong hands, a murder could come about from it. In the 19th century, there was an uprising in anesthesia use (Emanuel 1). In 1846, Dr.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cyber Security The Security Of The Nation s Computer...

Cyber Security can be defined as â€Å"The security of the nation’s computer and telecommunications infrastructure that include military, all forms of communications networking, electrical grids and power plants.† (Dhillon, 2013) The attacks can involve both public and private sectors including: †¢ Government Agencies †¢ Banks †¢ Power Companies †¢ Any other companies that utilizes computer and telecommunication systems. Very little research exists regarding power in information system (IS) security. However, with new policies promulgated over the past 12 years resistance is bound to occur, which makes a fantastic breeding ground for research on how effective the IS policy can be. Threats: Threats to the security of the country and its citizens can†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ The application of the theory leads to a complete political appraisal of the organization. †¢ The theory describes power in three different circuits. o Episodic: Describes day-day interaction, work, and outcomes. o Social Integration: Views how social structures affect power relationships and focusses on memberships and focusses on memberships and relationships. This has 2 subunits: ï‚ § Membership ï‚ § Shared Norms o System Integration: Looks at the technological means of control of an organization over the social and physical environment, this has two sub elements: ï‚ § Production ï‚ § Discipline Episodic Circuit of Power: †¢ The episodic circuit of power describes how events can shape policy. †¢ The events of 9/11 demonstrated how the lack of communication left the nation in a vulnerable state. †¢ The creation of department of homeland security illustrates the episodic power of an organization. †¢ Redirecting funds and resources, implementing personal policy oversight and other functions were placed under the control of a single person. †¢ The Creation of DHS also affected congressional functions. †¢ This resulted in the redirection of funds to certain areas of the country under the pretense of protection from terrorism. †¢ Terrorism is a grave threat to the nation but attacks are waged against organizations every single day that are not affiliated with a terrorist organization.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Project Management Collaborative Enterprise

Question: Discuss about the case study Project Management for Collaborative Enterprise. Answer: Introduction: By definition, project could be termed as the collaborative enterprise that is being planned carefully and designed for a certain aim (Lock, 2013). Therefore, since projects is a collaborative enterprise there is the need of coming up with strategies that could be effective in managing them (PMI, 2013). Therefore, the act of processing, knowledge, skill, experience and methods tend to be the referred in general as project management. In our course study our main focus of study is project management for large assets. Therefore, since project is a special transient endeavour that is undertaken for the purpose of achieving planned objectives, which could be defined in terms of output, project management of large assets in such of our case involves assets with a higher range scale of assets (Lock, 2013). Therefore, we could deem project as successful once it has achieved its objective in regards to the acceptance criteria based on the set timescale and budget. Hence, knowledge attained from this course in terms of core components of project management for large assets include: Definition of the reason why a project for large assets is deemed to be necessary. Ensuring that you have captures project requirements. Preparation of business case so as to justify the investment. Securing corporate agreement as well as funding. Development and implementation of management plan for the project. Ensuring that you manage risks, changes and issues in regards to project. Monitoring of process against plan. Managing project budget to avoid overspending. Providing management. Ensuring that when closing a project, it is in a controlled fashion that feels appropriate. Based on this course study, it also provides us with the idea of when to use project management. Since, project of large asset firms is made up of separate to business usual activities, it requires that people converge and for the purpose of attaining certain objective. Therefore, such effective teamwork tends to be key for successful projects completion (Tennyson Ordo nez, 2013). At times project management in large asset firm pertained from our class notes shows that it requires discrete packages for the purpose of objective achievement. Therefore, this shows that the way work is managed in project management of large assets depends on a wide variety of factors. Since, large asset firm project are hard to deal with, it is expected that there will be significance, high scale operations and complexity. For instance, take the case of relocating a small office, and organizing the Olympic or software development in a large firm, they share the same principles but there are a lot of different managerial challenges that should be considered. Therefore, this course study provides us with adequate knowledge that distinguishes factors that look at the nature of objectives. Objectives can be distinguished in terms of levels of output, outcomes benefits or strategic objectives (Finnerty, 2013). Therefore, this course provides us with efficient skills that would ensure greater likelihood of desired results, satisfaction of differing needs by large asset, and ensuring efficient and best value of large asset resources. References Project Management Institute. (2013).A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide). Lock, D. (2013).Project management. International Conference on Informatics and Management Science, Du, W. (2013).Informatics and management science IV. London: Springer. Tennyson, R. D., Ordo nez, . P. P. (2013).Best practices and new perspectives in service science and management. Hershey, Pa: IGI Global (701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Hershey, Pennsylvania, 17033, USA. In Kostka, G., In Fiedler, J. (2016).Large infrastructure projects in Germany: Between ambition and realities. Finnerty, J. D. (2013).Project financing: Asset-based financial engineering.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

World War One an Example by

World War One World War One in Europe was a defeating accomplishment because of the overall death toll. This paper will focus on why there were so many deaths during this wars, both civilian and military, by bringing a discussion about weapons technology to the forefront of the paper and how modern technology clashed with old tactics. In order to have a grasp of the world wars in Europe, a short history of communication and rivalry in Europe will be discussed in order for a clear picture of why so many countries were involved in these world wars. A focus on the daily lives of countrymen, especially Germans and especially the women left to fend for themselves while the men fought in the war will be dissected since Germany was a country who suffered financially after each war and the cruel reality that the country itself made their own people suffer with hunger in order to win the war (because funds were being transferred to developing weapons and not to the people of the country). Need essay sample on "World War One" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Our Customers Usually Tell EssayLab professionals: I attempted to work on that type essay by myself and it was a failure. Go To The Order Button And Prepare Yourself To Be Impressed Buy Essays Online College Papers Online Website To Write Papers Write My Essay For Me Cheap However, once the treaty was finalized, it met great resistance in the American Congress. There were many factors that divided the American Congress of the treaty. One of these factors was the seemingly light punishment that Wilson detailed against Germany. Partly because the United States had only been on the war for a short time, and partly because Wilson wanted to end the US involvement in European politics, he drafted the Fourteen Points against Germany. The next problem came from the congressmen who still opposed any US involvement in Europe. Since before the United States entered World War I, many Americans felt that US involvement was a waste of time and life. The Europe that emerged after the war was seen as much the same as it had been before the war began. Between these two main groups of opposition, there was not enough support, therefore, Wilsons treaty failed to be ratified by the United States congress. Wilson felt this was a great failure; it plagued him throughout the remainder of his presidency. Europes Wars and Revolutions: A Brief History Throughout Europe, the 17th and 18th centuries were a turbulent time. Among the many wars that were fought in this age, the War of Spanish Succession and the Seven Years War were particularly important. During the reign of The Sun King, Louis XIV, of France, the Kingdom of Spain fought to break away from the hegemonic rule of the Hapsburgs. Following the death of the last Hapsburg king of Spain, the new king, Phillip V slowly began to break away from French domination. Though he was a grandson of Frances King Louis XIV, Phillip V wanted a sovereign Spain, while Louis XIV desired a Spain that would serve France. The Holy Roman Empire saw the succession of Spain and the expansions of France as a threat. Therefore, Britain, the Danish kingdoms and the HRE joined into an alliance to stem this tide. Britains General, John Churchill, brought the greatest victories against France as he outmaneuvered Louis XIV, by securing the Netherlands, and the British foothold in Northern Europe. A few decades later, the next Great War, The Seven Years War, engulfed Europe again. The pressing of French interests in the North American regions was seen as a threat to other European nations. Prussia and Great Britain allied against France and fought for (actually) nine years. The resulting outcome saw a weakened France on the American continent, and in Europe, and a more powerful Prussia Europe, and a dominant Great Britain in North America. World War One This war entailed the Allied powers of Britain, France and America (triple entente) against the central powers, Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (triple alliance) from August 1924- November 11, 1918. This war led to the eventual collapse of four major empires and a new power structure in Europe that would eventually be tested with the Second World War. The war tactic that was infamous during World War One was trench warfare, as Solar Navigator (1999) states. Advances in military technology meant that defensive firepower out-weighed offensive capabilities, making the war particularly murderous, as tactics had failed to keep up. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances; artillery, now vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground a nightmarish prospect. By 1915 both sides were using poison gas. Neither side ever won a battle with gas, but it made life even more miserable in the trenches and became one of the most feared, and longest remembered, horrors of the war. Between the trenches of opposing forces was what is commonly defined as no man's land which accounted for a great percentage of deaths in this war. Not only were troops mobilized in the sea, which is common practice for war, but for the first time in history, a battle commenced in the sky. The death rate of this war was tremendous due to numerous factors, as Solar Navigator, states, the Battle of St. Mihel in 1918. Here, within a matter of one day, American troops, supported by tanks, airplanes, and artillery, advanced over 20 miles, clearing a salient that had been a thorn in the side of the French army since 1914. More than 9 million soldiers died on the various battlefields, and nearly that many more in the participating countries' home fronts on account of food shortages and genocide committed under the cover of various civil wars and internal conflicts. In World War I, only some 5% of the casualties (directly caused by the war) were civilian - in World War II, this figure approached 50%. These devastating facts highlight the true gruesome reality of World War One and its dramatic increase in deaths. The end of World War one saw the demise of many empires and the eventual creation of different countries. These included the end of the Russian Empire but the birth of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which would become a world power. The destruction of the Ottoman Empire led to the Republic of Turkey and other middle east states. Central Europe saw the rise of Czechoslovakia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Yugoslavia while other states were reestablished such as Austria, Hungary and Poland. Not only did World War One create new states of power and conflicting issues between these state would eventually lead to World War Two. In 1923 for example Fascists came into power in Italy and as Solar Navigator states, in 1933, 14 years after the war, Nazism took over Germany. Problems unresolved or created by the war would be highly important factors in the outbreak, within 20 years, of World War II. Causes: Why so many countries involved As most wars began, the First World War was the nascent war after an assassination. This assassination took place on June 28, 1914 (unofficially the beginning of the war). Gavrilo Princip, who was part of the Black Hand Gang assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. The reason for the Archdukes visit was to take imperial rule over a province (Solar Navigator). It must also be stated that this was not the sole contributor to the war, but it was one factor of many. Other causes of the war were included in the treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon. Austria, along with Berlin essentially acted first in its invasion of Serbia on July 29 that is one cause of the war. Also, Germany who on August 3, attacked Belgium, in accordance to the Schlieffen Plan (Solar Navigator). It was in these acts that the war began and it was in the above mentioned treaties that the Second World War may be found, as Solar Navigator states, Though drastically simplified, such an overview clearly portrays Germany and Austria-Hungary as the aggressors, and therefore, those bearing responsibility. Not surprisingly, this resulted in the humiliation of Germany, which included the demand that Germany pay all the war costs (including pensions) of the Allies. This directly affected the global economy and indirectly contributed to the Great Depression. Weapons The First World War was a race for advance weapons technology; essentially it was an arms race. For example, the HMS Dreadnought made obsolete all other previous war ships. This introduction of a weapon only incited other countries to build bigger and better warships to outrival Britains HMS Dreadnought. Between Britain and Germany there was an extreme arms race to discover and build a better war ship. One country was ever trying to out build the other. In view of this war ship other weapons were either introduced or being used with slight modifications during World War One which included the following: armored cars, grenades and mill bombs, Mark 1 (Mother; a tank), smokeless gunpowder, torpedo, and wireless communication (Spartacus). Why So Many Deaths In the face of technology is the reflection of deaths of not only soldiers but citizenry. World War One was a war fought with 19th century tactics and 29th century weaponry and technology which explains the high death rate of the war, in the trenches alone it is reported that one man died for every meter of land gained (Solar Navigator). Many of historys deadliest battles were fought in World War One, for example, Ypres, Vimy Ridge, Marne, Cmbrai, Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli (Solar Navigator). There were so many deaths in the First World War because of artillery. Mass amounts of machine gun fire far outweighed the 19th century musket, and tanks as well as grenades and other bombs were used in exorbitant amounts, more so than any other war had been witness. Explosives alone amounted to a great majority of the death percentage reported at the end of the war. Also, During the war, the [Haber process] of nitrogen fixation was employed to provide the German forces with a continuing suppl y of powder for the ongoing conflict in the face of Brittish naval control over the trade routes for naturally occurring nitrates (Solar Navigator). Chemical warfare, such as the use of mustard gas, tear gas, etc. was highly used in the trenches and accounted for the disabling of soldiers and their eventual demise from artillery, or phosgene gas used to directly kill an opponent. Of these wars it is apparent that the death rate among civilians was greatest in World War Two, but the military advances in technology and trench warfares gruesome military death rate was overpowering. The advances in technology during World War One were more prominent because the military was still using tactics of a previous century while incorporating technology that was far more advanced than either side was prepared. While World War One saw the sights of tanks, machine guns, and gas, World War Two had more civilians die due to genocide, hunger, and homelessness. World War Two also saw the beginnings of germ warfare; although war in itself is barbaric, it is with civilian deaths, those who did not make a choice to go to war that this barbarism is truly portrayed. Work Cited Burleigh, Michael. The Third Reich: A New History. Hill and Wang, New York, 2000. Caplan, Jane & Thomas Childers. Reevaluating the Third Reich.Holmes and Meier, 1993. Cosner, Shaaron & Victoria Cosner. Women Under the Third Reich Greenwood Press, 1998. Mosse, George L. Two World Wars and the Myth of the War Experience. Journal of Contemporary History. Vol. 23, No. 1. pp.491-513. Oct. 1986. Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs.Trans. Richard and Clara Winston. The MacMillan Company, New York, 1970. Streib, Gordon F. Idealism and War Bonds: Comparative Study of the Two World Wars. The Public Opinion Quarterly. Vol. 12, No. 2. pp.272-279. 1948.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Biography of Annie Jump Cannon, Classifier of Stars

Biography of Annie Jump Cannon, Classifier of Stars Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863–April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose work in star cataloging led to the development of modern star classification systems. Along with her groundbreaking work in astronomy, Cannon was a suffragist and activist for women’s rights. Fast Facts: Annie Jump Cannon Known For: American astronomer who created the modern star classification system and broke ground for women in astronomyBorn: December 11, 1863 in Dover, DelawareDied: April 13, 1941 in Cambridge, MassachusettsSelected Honors: Honorary doctorates from University of Groningen (1921) and Oxford University (1925), Henry Draper Medal (1931), Ellen Richards Prize (1932), National Womens Hall of Fame (1994)Notable Quote: Teaching man his relatively small sphere in the creation, it also encourages him by its lessons of the unity of Nature and shows him that his power of comprehension allies him with the great intelligence over-reaching all. Early Life Annie Jump Cannon was the eldest of three daughters born to Wilson Cannon and his wife Mary (neà ¨ Jump). Wilson Cannon was a state senator in Delaware, as well as a ship builder. It was Mary who encouraged Annie’s education from the very start, teaching her the constellations and encouraging her to pursue her interests in science and math. Throughout Annie’s childhood, mother and daughter stargazed together, using old textbooks to identify and map out the stars they could see from their own attic. Sometime during her childhood or young adulthood, Annie suffered major hearing loss, possibly due to scarlet fever. Some historians believe she was hard of hearing from childhood onward, while others suggest that she was already a young adult in her post-college years when she lost her hearing. Her hearing loss reportedly made it difficult for her to socialize, so Annie immersed herself more completely in her work. She never married, had children, or had publicly known romantic attachments. Annie attended Wilmington Conference Academy (known today as Wesley College) and excelled, particularly in math. In 1880, she began studying as Wellesley College, one of the best American colleges for women, where she studied astronomy and physics. She graduated as valedictorian in 1884, then returned home to Delaware. Teacher, Assistant, Astronomer In 1894, Annie Jump Cannon suffered a major loss when her mother Mary died. With home life in Delaware becoming more difficult, Annie wrote to her former professor at Wellesley, the physicist and astronomer Sarah Frances Whiting, to ask if she had any job openings. Whiting obliged and hired her as a junior-level physics teacher- which also enabled Annie to continue her education, taking graduate-level courses in physics, spectroscopy, and astronomy. To continue pursuing her interests, Annie needed access to a better telescope, so she enrolled at Radcliffe College, which had a special arrangement with nearby Harvard to have professors give their lectures both at Harvard and Radcliffe. Annie gained access to the Harvard Observatory, and in 1896, she was hired by its director, Edward C. Pickering, as an assistant. Pickering hired several women to assist him on his major project: completing the Henry Draper Catalogue, an extensive catalogue with the goal of mapping and defining every star in the sky (up to a photographic magnitude of 9). Funded by Anna Draper, Henry Draper’s widow, the project took up significant manpower and resources. Creating a Classification System Soon into the project, a disagreement arose over how to classify the stars they were observing. One woman on the project, Antonia Maury (who was Draper’s niece) argued for a complex system, while another colleague, Williamina Fleming (who was Pickering’s chosen supervisor) wanted a simple system. It was Annie Jump Cannon who figured out a third system as a compromise. She divided stars into the spectral classes O, B, A, F, G, K, M- a system which is still taught to astronomy students today. Annie’s first catalog of stellar spectra was published in 1901, and her career accelerated from that point on. She received a master’s degree in 1907 from Wellesley College, completing her studies from years earlier. In 1911, she became the Curator of Astronomical Photographs at Harvard, and three years later, she became an honorary member of the Royal Astronomical Society in the U.K. Despite these honors, Annie and her female colleagues were often criticized for working, rather than being housewives, and were often underpaid for long hours and tedious work. Regardless of criticism, Annie persisted, and her career flourished. In 1921, she was among the first women to receive an honorary doctorate from a European university when the Dutch university Groningen University awarded her an honorary degree in math and astronomy. Four years later, she was awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford – making her the first woman to receive an honorary doctorate of science from the elite university. Annie also joined the suffragist movement, advocating for women’s rights and, specifically, the extension of the right to vote; the right to vote for all women was finally won in 1928, eight years after the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. Annie’s work was noted for being incredibly rapid and accurate. At her peak, she could classify 3 stars per minute, and she classified around 350,000 over the course of her career. She also discovered 300 variable stars, five novas, and one spectroscopic binary star. In 1922, the International Astronomical Union officially adopted Cannons stellar classification system; it is still used, with only minor changes, to this day. In addition to her work on classifications, she served as a sort of ambassador within the astronomy field, helping forge partnerships among colleagues. She assumed a similar role for the astronomy field’s public-facing work: she wrote books presenting astronomy for public consumption, and she represented professional women at the 1933 World’s Fair. Retirement and Later Life Annie Jump Cannon was named the William C. Bond Astronomer at Harvard University in 1938. She remained in that position before retiring in 1940 at the age of 76. Despite being officially retired, however, Annie continued to work in the observatory. In 1935, she created the Annie J. Cannon Prize to honor women’s contributions to the field of astronomy. She continued to help women gain a foothold and gain respect in the scientific community, leading by example while also lifting up the work of fellow women in science. Annie’s work was continued by some of her colleagues. Most notably, the famous astronomer Cecilia Payne was one of Annie’s collaborators, and she used some of Annie’s data to support her groundbreaking work that determined that stars are composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. Annie Jump Cannon died on April 13, 1941. Her death came after a long illness and hospitalization. In honor of her countless contributions to astronomy, the American Astronomical Society presents an annual award named for her- the Annie Jump Cannon Award- to female astronomers whose work has been especially distinguished. Sources Des Jardins, Julie.  The Madame Curie Complex- The Hidden History of Women in Science. New York: Feminist Press, 2010.Mack, Pamela (1990).  Straying from their orbits: Women in astronomy in America. In Kass-Simon, G.; Farnes, Patricia; Nash, Deborah.  Women of Science: Righting the Record. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.Sobel, Dava.  The Glass Universe: How the Ladies of the Harvard Observatory Took the Measure of the Stars. Penguin: 2016.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

IFRS ( international financial reporting standards) Essay

IFRS ( international financial reporting standards) - Essay Example Resulting from this difference, IFRS gives the management flexibility and discretion in preparing the financial statements of a company. In the recent past, most nations have moved towards adopting a common globalized accounting standard. As such, use of IFRS in many parts of the world has gained widespread prominence and popularity. Regions such as the European Union, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore and Russia, and other countries have adopted the use of IFRS. In January 2011, Canada adopted the use of IFRS officially; consequently, many countries switched from their accounting standards and adopted the IFRS standard of Canada. The widespread acceptance of International Financial Reporting Standards portrays a fundamental change in the accounting profession. This stems from the fact that the use of IFRS has become a common phenomenon in the accounting profession (Nandakumar et al 2011, p. 3). About 100 countries either allow or require publicly held companies to use IFRS while preparing their financial statements. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in America has considered setting a date in order to allow U.S. public companies to adopt the use of IFRS. The process of setting international standards started several decades back. Industrialized nations saw the need to devise standards, which could be adopted by small and developing nations unable to come up with their own standards for accounting. With the globalization of business, investors, regulators, auditing firms and large companies realized the vitality of adopting common standards that could apply in all aspects of financial reporting (Kirk 2008, p. 2). The adoption of IFRS has some considerable benefits to the company and the investors who adopt these standards. The adoption of international standards allows the governments, and investors and organizations to have a comparison of the financial statements